Red Square is the main square of Russian capital. Its history is inseparably linked with the history of the Kremlin. According to chronicles, the square took shape in the late 15th century, when Ivan III ordered that all wooden structures around the Kremlin, which were potential fire hazards, be pulled down and a marketplace be made instead. Thus appeared the first name of the site: Torg, or the Mart. Since then, it has always been a center of trade.
In the 16th century, the square began to be called Troitskaya, after the Church of the Holy Trinity, which stood where the Cathedral of St. Basil was later constructed. According to documents from the 17th century, the square was then called Pozhar (Fire), and only afterward received its current name, whose first meaning is not red, but beautiful, fair, the best.
Moscow Red Square witnessed many historical events of major importance. In 1612, its bells rang out to meet the voluntary militia rallied by Minin and Pozharsky; two centuries later, they greeted Kutuzov’s army, which liberated Moscow from Napoleon’s troops. It witnessed the somber parade of 1941, when soldiers marched across the square and went from there straight to the front lines, and the unforgettable Victory Parade of 1945 with Nazi flags cast on the ground before the Kremlin walls.
The buildings surrounding the Moscow Red Square are all significant in some respect and they are all famous Moscow sights. For example, Lenin's Mausoleum contains the embalmed body of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, the founder of the Soviet Union. Nearby to the south is the elaborate brightly-domed Saint Basil's Cathedral and the palaces and cathedrals of the Kremlin. On the eastern side of the square is the GUM department store, and next to it the restored Kazan Cathedral. The northern side is occupied by the State Historical Museum, whose outlines echo those of Kremlin towers. The Iberian Gate and Chapel have been rebuilt to the northwest. The only sculptured monument on the square is a bronze statue of Kuzma Minin and Dmitry Pozharsky, who helped to clear Moscow from the Polish invaders in 1612, during the Times of Trouble. Nearby is the so-called Lobnoye Mesto, a circular platform where public ceremonies used to take place. Both the Minin and Pozharskiy statue and the Lobnoye Mesto were once located more centrally in Red Square but were moved to their current locations to facilitate the large military parades of the Soviet era.
The Moscow Red Square itself is around 330 meters (1100 ft) long and 70 meters (230 ft) wide. Please be aware that starting from 1993 photography using professional photographic equipment and/or a tripod is forbidden on the Red Square and other areas adjacent to the Kremlin. All cameras with a height of more than 140 mm and diameter removable lens more than 70 mm are banned. For permission you have to appeal to the commandant of the Moscow Kremlin